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Nutrition Information Resources
Report on the effectiveness of EU development aid for food security in sub-Saharan Africa
The European Court of Auditors recently finalised and adopted its performance audit report on the effectiveness of EU development aid for food security in sub-Saharan Africa.
This report was published on Wednesday 28 March 2012 and is available in all EU official languages on the Court's website: www.eca.europa.eu.
Agriculture-Climate Letter: Managing river flows in turbulent times
Water will be the primary medium through which climate change will have an impact on their livelihoods, argues Freshwater, climate change and adaptation in the Ganges River Basin, by Heather Hosterman, Peter McCornick, Elizabeth Kistin, Bharat Sharma and Luna Bharati. Management of water must therefore be at the forefront of adaptation.
Water use in agriculture is startling. Globally, irrigated farming accounts for about 68% of water abstraction and 93% of consumption (PDF) - domestic and industrial end-uses make up the remaining 7%. The Ganges basin is at the higher end of such statistics: agriculture accounts for 96% of withdrawals in Bangladesh and Nepal, and 86% in India. But water supplies must also be managed for other, sometimes competing, uses. Hosterman and co-authors consider the likely impacts of climate change, and arising implications for adaptation policy, across the interconnected sectors of agriculture, energy and ecosystems.
Comments about this article, then please click here.
The Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project's Final Report has been released
The Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project's Final Report "Our global efforts to prevent malnutrition during the first 1,000 days" has been released.
The report summarizes the IYCN Project's accomplishments and offers recommendations for building on IYCN's maternal, infant, and young child nutrition programming that spanned 16 countries over the past five years.
By focusing on prevention of malnutrition during the critical 1,000 days from pregnancy through a child's second birthday, involving communities in improved nutrition, and strengthening health systems, IYCN aimed to improve the nutritional status of mothers and children and to increase children's chances of surviving free of HIV.
These activities resulted in the following achievements:
- Built an enabling environment for improved nutrition
- Strengthened social and behavior change communication programming
- Enhanced complementary feeding programs
- Increased HIV-free survival for the next generation
- Brought women's and children's nutrition to the forefront of agriculture
- Strengthened health systems for healthier mothers and children
For the full report, please click here.
By UNICEF (2012)
This year's report focuses attention on the needs of children in urban areas.
One billion children live in urban areas, a number that is growing rapidly. Disparities within cities reveal that many children lack access to schools, health care and sanitation, despite living alongside these services.
For further information, please click below.
Children commonly develop anaemia (low haemoglobin) after birth. Anaemia is associated with several ill effects, including hindering motor development and learning skills, and impaired immunity. Children are therefore commonly given iron supplements to prevent or treat anaemia.
In countries where malaria is prevalent, it has been suggested that iron supplementation increases the risk of malaria and death. The high dose of iron which is given as medicine may result in free iron circulating in the blood and is made available to the malaria parasite, promoting its growth.
The attached Cochrane Review (Okebe JU, Yahav D, Shbita R, Paul M) aims to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation in children living in countries where malaria is prevalent. The conclusion of the Review is that iron supplementation (without folic acid) does not adversely affect children living in malaria-endemic areas. The evidence shown in the review is limited by the lack of trials examining the relevant outcomes and the limited information available, so that it was not possible to fully analyse factors that could affect the results, such as the children's baseline level of haemoglobin. Based on the review, routine iron supplementation should not be withheld
from children living in countries where malaria is prevalent.
For the full text of the Review, please click below.
By Save The Children (2012)
This report analyses the causes of malnutrition, focusing on chronic malnutrition and stunting in children. It identifies solutions that are proven to be effective in terms of direct interventions and indirect interventions.
For more information click below.
By Schmitz J, West KP, Khatry SK, Wu L, LeClerq SC, Karna S, Katz J, Sommer A, Pillion J. In BMJ (2012)
This randomised trial cohort follow-up study shows that Vitamin A supplementation during childhood may reduce the risk of hearing loss as young adults.
For more information click below.
By World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean (2011)
WHO Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean released its regional strategy and action plan for 2010-2019. The overall goal of the nutrition strategy for the Eastern Mediterranean Region is to improve the nutritional status of people throughout the lifecycle through encouraging countries to reposition nutrition as central to their development agenda.
For more information click below.
By Michel Pimbert (2012)
This paper highlights research into sustaining local food systems, biodiversity and livelihoods. It showcases how farming communities are taking the lead in action research to revive diverse, locally controlled food systems.
For more information click below.
By Michel Pimbert (2012)
This briefing explains how agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised and how it can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South.
For more information click below.
An IFPRI 2020 Book. Edited by Shenggen Fan and Rajul Pandya-Lorch (2012)
The fundamental purpose of agriculture is not just to produce food and raw materials, but to have healthy, well-nourished people. One of the sector's most important tasks then is to provide food of sufficient quantity and quality to feed and nourish the world's population sustainably so that all people can lead healthy, productive lives. Achieving this goal will require closer collaboration across the sectors of agriculture, nutrition, and health, which have long operated in separate spheres with little recognition of how their actions affect each other.
The full book will be available in February 2012. Meanwhile, a preview chapter from Reshaping Agriculture for Nutrition and Health has been released.
For more information click below.
Draft Guidelines for the Marketing of Ready to Use Supplemental Foods (RUSFs) for Children were published by Ted Greiner and members of the UNSCN NGO/CSO constituency in Field Exchange 41 (produced by the Emergency Nutrition Network) in April 2011. A number of comments were printed alongside the draft guidance - both the draft guidance and comments can be downloaded here.
Following the Field Exchange article, readers were invited to comment on the draft guidelines. Eleven comments have already been posted on en-net at the following link. We hope to re-ignite this discussion with contributions from the SCN News readership, just join the discussion on en-net at the link above.
By CB Barrett (Cornell University), A Binder, J Steets, eds. Routledge (2012)
This book features in-depth analysis on the global governance of food assistance, provides a mapping of key European Union and United States institutions engaged with food assistance, and highlights some of the biggest challenges for food assistance.
One of the chapters particularly focuses on the quality and safety of food assistance and talks about nutrition in emergency food assistance.
For more information click below
The Landscape Analysis of readiness to accelerate action in nutrition is a systematic approach to assessing where to invest and how to best invest to accelerate action in nutrition. It has the following three components:
- Desk analysis of country readiness - This involves comprehensive analysis of secondary-data indicators in 36 countries with a high burden of stunting (these countries were the initial focus of the analysis). The desk analysis uses multiple statistical methods to define country typologies of readiness which was defined by "commitment ̶ willingness to act" and "capacity ̶ ability to act". For the desk review, commitment was measured by "nutrition governance" indicator which was formulated by WHO using key elements required in countries for the processes by which policies and programmes are developed and implemented to achieve nutrition security, and capacity was measured using proxy measure of health care capacity.
- In-depth country assessments - To date, country assessments had been carried out in 18 countries: Burkina Faso, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Timor-Leste.
- Nutrition landscape information system (NLIS) (http://www.who.int/nutrition/nlis/).
The tool package of the Landscape Analysis country assessment provides guidance on "how to":
- plan a country assessment
- adapt tools for respective country context
- undertake preliminary desk review (including stakeholder mapping)
- conduct interviews and collect information
- analyse data using the analytical framework which provides indicators for assessing readiness as function of commitment and capacity to scale-up nutrition action
- organise a country stakeholders' consensus meeting
To access the full document, available in English and French, please click here. For more information, please click here.
New at IFPRI: 2011 Global Food Policy Report
IFPRI launches the 2011 Global Food Policy Report, a new annual publication that provides a comprehensive, research-based analysis of major food policy challenges at the global, regional, national, and local levels.
The report highlights important developments and events in food policy that occurred in 2011, discusses lessons learned, offers policy recommendations, presents IFPRI's food policy tools and indicators, and takes a look forward into 2012.
To read the report online, please click here.
The Copenhagen Consensus 2012 results are available!
In 2012, the Copenhagen Consensus Center's flagship project Copenhagen Consensus 2012 provides an answer to the question:
If we had an extra $75 billion to put to good use, which problems would we solve first?
The project, a culmination of 18 months of planning, research-writing and preparation, builds on the success of two past Copenhagen Consensus projects: Copenhagen Consensus 2004 and Copenhagen Consensus 2008.
The Copenhagen Consensus 2012 Expert Panel finds that fighting malnourishment should be the top priority for policy-makers and philantropists.
Read more by clicking below.
The 2012 edition of the Mediterra report takes the mobilising potential of the Mediterranean Diet as a basis and proposes a multidimensional itinerary involving sociodemographics, health, ecology, enterprise, geo-economics and citizens' initiative.
Produced by CIHEAM (The International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies of Montpellier), the Report was launched at a Press Conference organized in Paris on 7 March 2012.
The report is available in English and French and can be downloaded free of charge.
Click below for more information.
Aid for Nutrition: Can investments to scale up nutrition actions be accurately tracked?
Action Against Hunger has just released a new report, Aid for Nutrition, which provides donors, aid recipients and other stakeholders with a detailed analysis of current spending on nutrition and of the adequacy of current aid reporting systems. It also provides recommendations on what can be done to scale up the response to undernutrition effectively.
Investments in nutrition are currently inadequate with the majority of funding going towards direct nutrition interventions in response to humanitarian crises, reflecting the short term nature of aid for nutrition. Furthermore, nutrition aid is not always directed to countries with the highest burdens of undernutrition, many donors fail to honour all commitments, and poor donor reporting practices have hindered transparency and accountability. Based on their findings, Action Against Hunger recommends that donors must commit to aid transparency principles by improving reporting practices, that donors and governments increase their investments in direct or nutrition specific interventions, that the treatment and prevention of undernutrition be also targeted in non-emergency situations, and that an annual review of investments in nutrition be done to keep the paucity of funding for nutrition high on the political agenda.
To read the report, please click here. To consult the Action Against Hunger website, please click here.
The new CMAM Forum has been launched!
The UNSCN is part of the steering group of this Forum, an information sharing mechanism which aims to bring together resources and initiatives related to the management of acute malnutrition. Please follow this link to become a member and access key resources on Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition: http://www.cmamforum.org/
As part of the work on implementing the project "Promoting healthy growth and preventing childhood stunting", the World Health Organization has worked with various experts to prepare nine papers for a supplement of the Maternal and Child Nutrition Journal. The supplement has been launched at the 20th International Congress on Nutrition.
The papers will contribute to ongoing reflections on multiple aspects of the challenges presented by a World Health Assembly 2012 target for stunting reduction and ways to address them.
Click here to access the Maternal & Child Nutrition Journal and the video for the individual article summaries. http://www.who.int/nutrition/healthgrowthproj_maternalchildnut_journal/en/index.html.
See these videos whereby contributing authors to each of the papers present, in their own words, key take-home messages for the reader.
The 2013 edition of The State of Food Insecurity in the World was released on 1 October 2013.
The report presents updated estimates of undernourishment and progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and World Food Summit (WFS) hunger targets. The latest assessment shows that further progress has been made towards the 2015 MDG target, which remains within reach for the developing regions as a whole, although marked differences across regions persist and considerable and immediate additional efforts will be needed.
The 2013 report also presents a broader suite of indicators that aim to capture the multidimensional nature of food insecurity, its determinants and outcomes. Drawing on the suite of indicators, the report also examines the diverse experiences of six countries (Bangladesh, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Tajikistan and Uganda), finding a mixed picture of progress and setbacks. Together, these country experiences show the importance of social protection and nutrition-enhancing interventions, policies to increase agricultural productivity and rural development, diverse sources of income and long-term commitment to mainstreaming food security and nutrition in public policies and programmes. The new report indicates that a total of 842 million people in 2011-13, or around one in eight people in the world, are estimated to be suffering from chronic hunger, regularly not getting enough food to conduct an active life, lower than the 868 million reported with reference to 2010-12-term commitment to mainstreaming food security and nutrition in public policies and programmes.
You can download a copy or the publication from the FAO website: www.fao.org/publications/sofi.
The data can be downloaded from here.
The 2014 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report which has just been released on the 13th of October 2014, states that ending hunger in all its forms is possible and that it must now become a reality.
The report indicates that the overall state of hunger in developing countries has improved since 1990, falling by 39 percent, according to the 2014 GHI. Despite progress made, the level of hunger in the world is still "serious," with 805 million people continuing to go hungry, according to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
The report brings new insights to the global debate on where to focus efforts in the fight against hunger and malnutrition. The global average obscures dramatic differences across regions and countries. Regionally, the highest GHI scores-and therefore the highest hunger levels-are in Africa south of the Sahara and South Asia, which have also experienced the greatest absolute improvements since 2005. South Asia saw the steepest absolute decline in GHI scores since 1990. Progress in addressing child underweight was the main factor behind the improved GHI score for the region since 1990. The report provides more insight on countries' progress and levels of hunger.
The 2014 GHI report reflects on the hidden hunger problem-also called micronutrient deficiencies-. This shortage in essential vitamins and minerals can have long-term, irreversible health effects as well as socioeconomic consequences that can erode a person's well-being and development. The report then offers possible solutions to hidden hunger including: long term food-based approaches: dietary diversification, fortification of commercial foods; and bio fortification. Short term, vitamin and mineral supplements can help vulnerable populations combat hidden hunger. Along with these solutions, behavioural change communication is critical to educate people about health services, sanitation and hygiene, and caring practices, as well as the need for greater empowerment of women at all levels. Moreover, governments must demonstrate political commitment to prioritize the fight against malnutrition. Governments and multilateral institutions need to invest in and develop human and financial resources, increase coordination, and ensure transparent monitoring and evaluation to build capacity on nutrition; governments must also create a regulatory environment that values good nutrition. This could involve creating incentives for private sector companies to develop more nutritious seeds or foods.
Overall, transparent accountability systems are needed in order to ensure that investments contribute to public health, while standardized data collection on micronutrient deficiencies can build the evidence base on the efficacy and cost effectiveness of food-based solutions. These and other recommendations set out in this report are some of the steps needed to eliminate hidden hunger. To start reading, click here.
The first-ever Global Nutrition Report provides a comprehensive narrative and analysis on the state of the world's nutrition in all its forms. To download, click here.
Countries are facing complex overlays of connected malnutrition burdens that need concentrated action at the policy, health system and community levels. The World Health Assembly (WHA) universally agreed in 2012 to endorse a set of six global nutrition targets for improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition by 2025, specifically to:
• Achieve a 50 percent reduction in the rate of anemia in women of reproductive age;
• Achieve a 30 percent reduction in the rate of infants born low birth weight;
• Ensure that there is no increase in the rate of children who are overweight;
• Increase to at least 50 percent the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months; and
• Reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5 percent.
The Global Nutrition Report (GNR) 2015 is available now and has been formally launched in New York on 22 September. The GNR has been developed by a vast number of authors (70). An Independent Expert Group is responsible for the Global Nutrition Report's data, analysis and conclusions, and is accountable for the quality and independence of its content.
A new UN report, the State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI 2014) released today, raises hope that reaching the MDG target to halving the proportion of world's hungry is still within reach by the end of 2015; 63 developing countries have reached the MDG target, and six more are on track to reach it by 2015.
In an early release for the upcoming research papers focused on Food Security and Nutrition, Susan Horton, CIGI Chair in Global Health Economics at University of Waterloo, Canada, and John Hoddinott, Professor of Food & Nutrition Economics and Policy at Cornell University present a cost-benefit analysis of nutrition interventions. The outcome document of the Open Working Group calls for the adoption of two WHO nutrition goals on stunting and wasting: Reduce by 40 per cent the number of children under 5 who are stunted, and reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5 per cent.
For more insight, click here.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP) launched the latest edition of the annual UN hunger report "The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015".
The report states that the number of hungry people in the world has dropped to 795 million - that is 216 million fewer than in 1990-92. Yet, the world population has grown by 1.9 billion since 1990, making reductions of the number of hungry people all the more striking, the report says.
In the developing regions, the prevalence of undernourishment has declined to 12.9 percent of the population, down from 23.3 percent a quarter of a century ago. A majority - 72 out of 129 - of the countries monitored by FAO have achieved the Millennium Development Goal target of halving the prevalence of undernourishment by 2015, with developing regions as a whole missing the target by a small margin.
Large reductions in hunger were achieved in East Asia and very fast progress was posted in Latin America and the Caribbean, southeast and central Asia, as well as some parts of Africa, showing that inclusive economic growth, agricultural investments and social protection, along with political stability makes the elimination of hunger possible. Above all, the political will to make hunger eradication a paramount development objective has fostered progress. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest prevalence of undernourishment in the world - at 23.2 percent, or almost one in every four people.
The full State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015 report is available online, here.
The report in brief is available here.
For further information, click here.
In September 2015 the inter-agency team released new joint estimates of child malnutrition using available data up to 2014 and the revised UN population estimates (2015 revision). The same methodology as in previous years was applied with minor refinements. These new estimates supersede former analyses results published by UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank Group.
UNICEF is launching a new, in-depth analysis, For every child, a fair chance: The promise of equity, which builds on evidence and experience from UNICEF's focus on reaching the most vulnerable children. As decision-makers debate development and investment priorities for Agenda 2030, two arguments show the urgency for a global commitment to close gaps between those who have the most and those who have the least.
First, the cycle of inequity can be broken. A virtuous cycle of opportunity can be set in motion by supporting interventions that give disadvantaged children a good start in life.
Second, the cost of inaction will be felt in lost lives and wasted potential. Failing to invest sustainably in essential services and protection for every child will have detrimental effects for generations to come.
This report makes the case for closing persistent gaps in equity, because the cycle of inequity is neither inevitable nor insurmountable, and the cost of inaction is too high.
A new publication by WHO/Europe provides information on using price policies to promote healthy diets and explores policy developments from around the WHO European Region. It examines the economic theory underpinning the use of subsidies and taxation and explores the available evidence. The publication includes several case studies from WHO European Member States where price policies have been introduced, along with a European Union scheme. It concludes with some observations about the design of more effective price policies.
For more insight and to read the full text, click here
WHO, led by the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD), has launched an online consultation on the discussion paper for the "Clarification and guidance on inappropriate promotion of foods for infants and young children". The purpose of this online consultation is to solicit comments on the draft clarification and guidance. These comments will be taken into consideration prior to informal dialogue with civil society and private sector (17 August 2015), and informal consultation with Member States (18 August 2015).
Find the discussion paper available in the six UN languages on the website below:
The discussion paper provides a set of recommendations that countries and other stakeholders can use to ensure that promotion of foods and beverages for infants and young children is ethically sound, is guided by appropriate, enforceable legal and regulatory measures, and does not undermine optimal nutrition, including exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Following the consultative process and informal dialogue, the draft document will be submitted to the WHO Executive Board in preparation, to be discussed at its 138th session in January 2016 in preparation for consideration by Member States at the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2016.
Participants are encouraged to provide comments on the Scope of the document and the seven recommendations:
The online consultation is open from 20 July to 10 August 2015.
UNICEF just released their flagship report, The State of the World's Children 2014 in Numbers. The report titled, Every Child Counts: Revealing disparities, advancing children's rights highlights the importance of data in making progress for children and exposing the unequal access to services and protections that mars the lives of so many.
The statistics in the report bear witness to ongoing violations of children's rights. It adds that innovations in data collection, analysis and dissemination are making it possible to disaggregate data by such factors as location, wealth, sex, and ethnic or disability status, to include children who have been excluded or overlooked by broad averages. The report urges increased investment in innovations that right the wrong of exclusion.
With growing attention to nutrition-agriculture linkages, understanding how to create nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food systems is an essential task for the future. This edition of SCN News, entitled, ‘Changing Food Systems for Better Nutrition' provides an overview and insights on how to change food systems for better nutrition.
This edition feature papers looking at what is going on now in terms of programming and policies, and also papers considering how to accomplish change. The case studies provide concrete examples of how countries and cities are integrating agriculture and nutrition.
This edition also contains an interview with Alan Berg, one of the nutrition pioneers, and provides an enlightening testimony of an individual's efforts to bring nutrition and agriculture together. It also tells the story of a nutritionist winning a Grammy Award.
Access the complete SCN News 40 now and happy reading !!
Anand Grover, the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, discusses unhealthy foods, non-communicable diseases and the right to health in his report submitted to the Human Rights Council. During the 26th session of the Human Rights Council, WHO issued a statement appreciating this report and addressed progress and further work for tackling NCDs.
This new report by an independent panel of experts takes a close look at where and how food waste occurs and recommends a number of actions that could help reduce the 1.3 billion tonnes of food that are squandered worldwide each year. The report "Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems" was produced by the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS).
A new dichotomous indicator for assessing Women's Dietary Diversity called Minimum Dietary Diversity - Women (MDD-W), was selected and endorsed by multi-disciplinary experts at a consensus meeting lead by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) in July 2014.
SCN NEWS is the peer reviewed publication of the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (UNSCN) that is published yearly with a focus on trending themes every year.The next issue of SCN NEWS will focus on nutrition in the post-2015 development agenda. Nutrition is a considered both a key determinant for and an outcome of development. Thus, as the international community moves forward from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is essential to recognize that malnutrition, in all its forms will represent an impediment to the successful achievement of the SDGs and its targets by 2030.
The SCN NEWS 41 is intended to constructively contribute to the global discussion about the key roles of nutrition in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as the potential benefits of realizing the SDGs on nutrition. We welcome contributions from the various sectors, and particularly encourage papers with different perspectives and approaches to the issue (e.g. a human rights lens), and those that support and provide clear guidance to countries and fieldworkers on what can be done in terms of policy and action on the road to 2030. The contributions categories are the following:
Feature articles: 3,000 words articles related to the general topic of the publication. The articles will be submitted to peer review, and can include conceptual contributions or practical examples of policies and programmes.
Programme News: 400 words briefs with information from partners and agencies on programme developments, such as initiatives at regional or national level, NGO programmes, new tools to be used in nutrition programmes, etc. Abstracts of scientific papers are not accepted.
Publications: recent publications of relevance to nutrition, including manuals, tools and guidelines that are usually not found in regular bookstores. Max. 200 words per submission.
Bulletin Board: announcements of upcoming meetings, conferences, trainings, scholarships, etc. Max. 100 words per submission.
Speaker's Corner: 1,500 words articles with the authors' views regarding a particular hot topic in nutrition policy or programme. The section sometimes features a counterpoint by another author holding an opposite opinion to stimulate debate on important issues.
Please click here to find out how you can contribute and what we are looking for.
Deadline for submission of papers: 5 January 2015
Please send your contributions electronically to the SCN News Editor at email@example.com
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